April 23, 2019 | By Brian Spegele and Kate O’Keeffe | Wall Street Journal |
“Orbiting 22,000 miles above Earth, a fleet of American-built satellites is serving the Chinese government in ways that challenge the U.S.
Nine of these satellites have been part of efforts to connect Chinese soldiers on contested outposts in the South China Sea, strengthen police forces against social unrest and make sure state messaging penetrates far and wide, according to corporate records, stock filings and interviews with executives.
A tenth satellite, under construction by Boeing Co. , would enhance China’s competitor to the U.S. Global Positioning System. Besides civilian uses, the navigation system could help China in a potential conflict, such as in guiding missiles to their targets.
U.S. law effectively prohibits American companies from exporting satellites to China, where domestic technology lags well behind America’s. But the U.S. doesn’t regulate how a satellite’s bandwidth is used once the device is in space. That has allowed China to essentially rent the capacity of U.S.-built satellites it wouldn’t be allowed to buy, a Wall Street Journal investigation found.
Tangled webs of satellite ownership and offshore firms have helped China’s government achieve its goals. Some of America’s biggest companies, including private-equity firm Carlyle Group in addition to Boeing, have indirectly facilitated China’s efforts, the Journal found.”
“All this appears to run counter to the U.S.’s stance of confronting China’s military buildup and condemning what international watchdog groups describe as widespread human-rights abuses by China’s police. That includes in far-flung territories, where the satellites help the government beam communications. Current and former U.S. officials who reviewed the Journal’s findings called the satellite deals worrisome examples of China using U.S. commercial technology for strategic gain.
“It’s a serious ethical and moral problem as well as a national-security issue,” said Larry Wortzel , a former chairman of the bipartisan U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, a group that advises Congress.”
Clinton Approves Technology Transfer to China
“The Clinton Administration notified Congress today that it had approved the export of technology to China to permit the launching of a communications satellite aboard a Chinese rocket next month.
President Clinton said in a letter to Congress that the transfer would not harm national security or significantly improve China’s military capability in space. The President was required under a 1998 law to certify that all such technology exports are in the national interest.
The certification was the first such notice to Congress under the law, which was passed in the aftermath of a Congressional uproar last year over the transfer of sensitive missile technology to China.
Mr. Clinton’s notification also follows by less than a week the release of a report by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, which concluded that lax monitoring of the launching of American-made satellites aboard Chinese rockets had enhanced the accuracy of China’s ballistic missile arsenal.
And the action comes three days after the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade was inadvertently bombed in a NATO raid, touching off angry street protests in Beijing.
The President’s action will affect the June 7 launching of a Motorola Iridium satellite, which is to fly into low orbit to provide paging and cellular telephone service. Mr. Clinton said that he had approved the export of satellite fuel and explosive bolts, which eject the satellite from its launch vehicle.
Today’s action was the final approval needed for the launch, which was first authorized in July 1993. A license for the export of the satellite itself was granted in November.
”The timing of this certification is not connected in any way to the tragic accident of the bombing of the Chinese Embassy,” said David Leavy, a spokesman for the National Security Council. ”Approval was recommended by the Departments of Commerce, State and Defense and is consistent with our policy of supporting the launch of U.S. communications satellites by China subject to strong safeguards being in place.”
A staff member of the intelligence panel said it was unlikely to contest the approval of the technology. But he said questions might be raised over whether the explosive bolts might someday be used to help eject nuclear warheads from a missile.”
RESEARCH The Geoengineering Act:
Health & Safety legislation to impose critical public oversight and essential regulatory prohibition of hazardous emissions, satellite systems, and wireless irradiating infrastructures. Rhode_Island-2021-GEA
Atmosphere Modification Satellite US4,402,480
This documentary is about the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (H.A.A.R.P)
“4. Research 4.1 Exercise leadership in coordinating U.S. efforts in international weather research priorities including the current World Meteorological Organization Grand Challenges.”
-2021 Federal Weather Enterprise
Link To The Grand Challenges for WMO
“The Institute for the Study of the Brain (sic) of the University of California is cited as engaged in research on the debilitating effect of weak vibrational fields on human behavior.” p.84-85